Vaccination & Immunization For Adults & Children 预防针

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Vaccination & Immunization For Adults & Children 预防针 Vaccination & Immunization For Adults & Children


VACCINATIONS


Malaysia Immunization schedule   马来西亚免疫程序

Vaccine Disease
BCG Tuberculosis (TB) – contagious and fatal, which could result in lung damage, TB meningitis and bone disease.
                               - 
具有传染性和致命性,可能导致肺部损伤,结核性脑膜炎和骨骼疾病。
HepatitisB
 
Hepatitis B – a viral infection that can lead to jaundice or liver cancer, spread through sexual contact, blood transfusion.
                       
通过性接触,输血传播的可导致黄疸或肝癌的病毒感染。
DTaP Diphtheria – causes the obstruction of the airway and can lead to heart and brain damage.
                      
引起气道阻塞并可能导致心脏和大脑损伤


Pertussis (Whooping cough) – severe, prolonged coughing fits that can cause lung and brain infections.
                                                     
严重的长时间咳嗽发作会导致肺和脑感染。

Tetanus (Lockjaw) – severe muscle spasm that can lead to death.
                                   
严重的肌肉痉挛可导致死亡。

Polio Poliomyelitis (Polio) – permanent muscle weakness that can cause paralysis, especially of the legs.
                                      
永久性肌肉无力,可能导致麻痹,尤其是腿部麻痹
MMR Measles – highly contagious, characterized by fever, cough, runny nose and rashes. May be complicated by pneumonia, encephalitis, otitis media (middle ear infection).具有高度传染性,以发烧,咳嗽,流鼻涕和皮疹为特征。 可能并发肺炎,脑炎,中耳炎(中耳感染)。

 

Mumps – Highly infectious, causes swelling of the glands behind the jaw. May result in inflammation of the testis resulting in sterility.
                 
高度传染性,导致颌后腺的肿胀。 可能导致睾丸发炎,导致不育。

Rubella (German measles) – may be passed by pregnant women to their babies, resulting in congenital rubella syndrome.
                                                 
孕妇可能会将其传染给婴儿,导致先天性风疹综合症。

Hib Haemophilus influenza tybe b (Hib) – inflammation of membranes around the brain and spinal cord (meningitis), pneumonia, bronchitis, bacteraemia, ear infection, and epiglottitis.脑和脊髓周围的膜发炎(脑膜炎),肺炎,支气管炎,菌血症,耳部感染和会厌炎。


Gardasil 9 & Gardasil 4 子宮頸疫苗 9 & 4



Gardasil 9  子宮頸疫苗 9
GARDASIL 9 is a vaccine indicated in girls and women from 9 through 45 years of age for the prevention of cervical, vulvar, vaginal cancer, precancerous or dysplastic lesions and genital warts caused by Human Papillomavirus (HPV). GARDASIL 9 also provides protection in girls and women 9-26 years against anal cancer.
GARDASIL 9 is indicated to prevent the following diseases: Cervical, vulvar, vaginal, and anal cancer caused by HPV types 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58; Genital warts (condyloma acuminata) caused by HPV types 6 and 11.
And the following precancerous or dysplastic lesions caused by HPV types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58: Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 2/3 and Cervical adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS); Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 1; Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) grade 2 and grade 3; Vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VaIN) grade 2 and grade 3; Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) grades 1, 2, and 3.
GARDASIL 9 is indicated in boys and men from 9 through 26 years of age for the prevention of anal cancer, anal precancerous or dysplastic lesions and external genital lesions (including genital warts) caused by HPV.
GARDASIL 9 is indicated to prevent the following diseases: Anal cancer caused by HPV types 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58; Genital warts (condyloma acuminata) caused by HPV types 6 and 11.
And the following precancerous or dysplastic lesions caused by HPV types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) grades 1, 2, and 3.

GARDASIL 9是一种针对9岁至45岁女性和女性的疫苗,可预防由人乳头瘤病毒(HPV)引起的宫颈癌,外阴癌,阴道癌,癌前病变或增生性病变和生殖器疣。 GARDASIL 9还为9-26岁的女孩和女性提供了预防肛门癌的保护。
GARDASIL 9可以预防以下疾病:由16、18、31、33、45、52和58型HPV引起的宫颈癌,外阴癌,阴道癌和肛门癌;由6型和11型HPV引起的生殖器疣(尖锐湿疣)。
以下是由HPV类型6、11、16、18、31、33、45、52和58引起的癌前或增生性病变:宫颈上皮内瘤变(CIN)2/3级和宫颈原位腺癌(AIS);宫颈上皮内瘤变(CIN)1级;外阴上皮内瘤变(VIN)2级和3级;阴道上皮内瘤变(VaIN)2级和3级;肛门上皮内瘤变(AIN)1、2和3级。
GARDASIL 9适用于9至26岁的男孩和男性,用于预防HPV引起的肛门癌,肛门癌前或增生异常病变和外生殖器病变(包括生殖器疣)。
GARDASIL 9可以预防以下疾病:由HPV 16、18、31、33、45、52和58型引起的肛门癌;由6型和11型HPV引起的生殖器疣(尖锐湿疣)。
以及以下由HPV类型6、11、16、18、31、33、45、52和58引起的癌前或增生性病变:肛门上皮内瘤变(AIN)1、2和3级。

Gardasil 4 子宮頸疫苗 4
In girls and women 9-45 years for the prevention of cervical, vulvar, vaginal cancer; precancerous or dysplastic lesions and genital warts caused by HPV. Provides protection in girls and women 9-26 years against anal cancer.
Prevent the following diseases: Cervical, vulvar and vaginal, and anal cancer caused by HPV types 16 and 18; genital warts (condyloma acuminata) caused by HPV types 6 and 11; and the following precancerous or dysplastic lesions caused by HPV types 6, 11, 16 and 18: Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 2/3 and cervical adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS); cervical intraepitelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 1; vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) grades 2 and 3; vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VaIN) grades 2 and 3; anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) grades 1, 2 and 3.
In boys and men 9-26 years, for the prevention of anal cancer caused by HPV types 16 and 18 and genital warts (condyloma acuminata) caused by HPV types 6 and 11; precancerous or dysplastic lesions caused by HPV types 6, 11, 16 and 18 eg, anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) grades 1, 2 and 3.

在9-45岁的女孩和妇女中预防宫颈癌,外阴癌,阴道癌; HPV引起的癌前或增生性病变和生殖器疣。在9-26岁的女孩和妇女中提供预防肛门癌的保护。
预防以下疾病:16型和18型HPV引起的宫颈癌,外阴癌和阴道癌以及肛门癌;由6型和11型HPV引起的生殖器疣(尖锐湿疣);以及由6、11、16和18型HPV引起的以下癌前或增生性病变:宫颈上皮内瘤变(CIN)2/3级和原位宫颈腺癌(AIS);宫颈上皮内瘤变(CIN)1级; 2和3级外阴上皮内瘤变(VIN);阴道上皮内瘤变(VaIN)为2和3级;肛门上皮内瘤变(AIN)1、2和3级。
在9-26岁的男孩和男性中,用于预防由HPV 16和18型引起的肛门癌以及由HPV 6和11型引起的生殖器疣(尖锐湿疣);由6、11、16和18型HPV引起的癌前或增生性病变,例如1、2和3级肛门上皮内瘤变(AIN)。


Pneumococcal  肺炎球菌疫苗


Pneumococcal disease is common in young children, but older adults are at greatest risk of serious illness and death. There are two kinds of vaccines that help prevent pneumococcal disease.

The bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae)
 , which is also known as pneumococcus, causes pneumococcal disease.

Invasive pneumococcal disease is a life-threatening condition that is fatal in 10 percent of cases. Older people and those with underlying medical conditions have a higher risk than others of serious complications.

Regular vaccinations can prevent many types of pneumococcal disease and the potential complications that may arise.

Active immunisation for the prevention of pneumococcal disease caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes 1, 3, 4, 5, 6A, 6B, 7F, 9V, 14, 18C, 19A, 19F and 23F (including invasive disease, pneumonia and acute otitis media) in infants, children and adolescents from 2 months to 17 years of age.
Active immunisation for the prevention of pneumococcal disease caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes 1, 3, 4, 5, 6A, 6B, 7F, 9V, 14, 18C, 19A, 19F and 23F in adults aged 18 years and older.


肺炎球菌疾病在幼儿中很常见,但老年人患严重疾病和死亡的风险最大。有两种疫苗可以帮助预防肺炎球菌疾病。
 
肺炎链球菌(S. pneumoniae)也称为肺炎球菌,会引起肺炎球菌病。
侵袭性肺炎球菌疾病是威胁生命的疾病,在10%的病例中是致命的。老年人和患有潜在疾病的人比其他人发生严重并发症的风险更高。
 
定期接种疫苗可以预防多种类型的肺炎球菌疾病以及可能出现的潜在并发症。
 
积极免疫预防由以下疾病引起的肺炎链球菌血清型1、3、4、5、6A,6B,7F,9V,14、18C,19A,19F和23F引起的肺炎球菌疾病(包括侵入性疾病,肺炎和急性中耳炎) 2个月至17岁的婴儿,儿童和青少年。
主动免疫预防18岁及以上成年人因肺炎链球菌血清型1、3、4、5、6A,6B,7F,9V,14、18C,19A,19F和23F引起的肺炎球菌疾病。



Influenza 流感疫苗


Influenza is a viral infection that attacks your respiratory system — your nose, throat and lungs. Influenza is commonly called the flu, but it's not the same as stomach ''flu'' viruses that cause diarrhea and vomiting.

For most people, influenza resolves on its own. But sometimes, influenza and its complications can be deadly. People at higher risk of developing flu complications include:

  • Young children under age 5, and especially those under 12 months
  • Adults older than age 65
  • Residents of nursing homes and other long-term care facilities
  • Pregnant women and women up to two weeks postpartum
  • People with weakened immune systems
  • People who have chronic illnesses, such as asthma, heart disease, kidney disease, liver disease and diabetes
  • People who are very obese, with a body mass index (BMI) of 40 or higher

Though the annual influenza vaccine isn't 100 percent effective, it's still your best defense against the flu.

Prevention of influenza, especially in those who run an increased risk of associated complications. The use of Influvac should be based on official recommendations. Vaccination is particularly recommended for the following categories of patients, depending on national immunization policies: Persons ≥65 years, regardless of their health condition; adults and children with chronic disorders of the pulmonary or cardiovascular systems, including asthma; chronic metabolic diseases eg, diabetes mellitus; chronic renal dysfunction; immunodeficiencies due to disease or immunosuppressant medication (eg, cytostatics or corticosteroids) or radiotherapy; children and teenagers (6 months to 18 years) who receive long-term acetylsalicylic acid-containing medication, and might therefore be at risk for developing Reye's syndrome following an influenza infection.

This vaccine can also inject before travel for protection .

 

流感是一种病毒感染,会侵袭您的呼吸系统-鼻子,喉咙和肺。流感通常称为流感,但与引起腹泻和呕吐的胃“流感”病毒不同。
对于大多数人来说,流感是自行解决的。但是有时候,流感及其并发症可能是致命的。患流感并发症的风险较高的人群包括:
 
5岁以下的幼儿,尤其是12个月以下的幼儿
65岁以上的成年人
疗养院和其他长期护理机构的居民
孕妇和产后两周以下的妇女
免疫系统较弱的人
患有慢性疾病的人,例如哮喘,心脏病,肾脏疾病,肝病和糖尿病
体重指数(BMI)为40或更高的非常肥胖的人
尽管每年的流感疫苗并非100%有效,但它仍然是抵御流感的最佳方法。
 
预防流行性感冒,尤其是那些罹患相关并发症的风险增加的人。 Influvac的使用应基于官方建议。根据国家的免疫政策,特别建议对以下类型的患者进行疫苗接种:65岁以上的人,无论其健康状况如何;有肺或心血管系统慢性疾病(包括哮喘)的成人和儿童;慢性代谢性疾病,例如糖尿病;慢性肾功能不全;由于疾病或免疫抑制剂药物(例如细胞抑制剂或皮质类固醇)或放射疗法引起的免疫缺陷;长期服用含乙酰水杨酸的药物的儿童和青少年(6个月至18岁),因此可能在感染流感后有患上Reye综合征的风险。


这种疫苗也可以在旅行前注射以进行保护。


Twinrix A+B  乙+甲型肝炎疫苗


Primary vaccination schedule
 
The standard primary course of vaccination with Twinrix Adult consists of three doses, the first administered at the elected date, the second one month later and the third six months after the first dose.
 
In exceptional circumstances in adults, when travel is anticipated within one month or more after initiating the vaccination course, but where insufficient time is available to allow the standard 0, 1, 6 month schedule to be completed, a schedule of three intramuscular injections given at 0, 7 and 21 days may be used. When this schedule is applied, a fourth dose is recommended 12 months after the first dose.
 
The recommended schedule should be adhered to. Once initiated, the primary course of vaccination should be completed with the same vaccine.

初次接种时间表
 
Twinrix Adult疫苗的标准主要疫苗接种过程包括三剂,第一剂在选择的日期进行,第二剂在一个月后,第三剂在第一剂后的六个月。
在成年人的特殊情况下,如果预计在开始接种疫苗后一个月或更长时间内会旅行,但是如果没有足够的时间来完成标准的0、1、6个月时间表,则在3分钟内进行一次肌肉注射时间表 可以使用0、7和21天。 当采用该时间表时,建议在第一剂后12个月服用第四剂。
应遵守建议的时间表。 一旦开始,应使用相同的疫苗完成主要的疫苗接种过程。

 
Hepatitis A  甲型肝炎疫苗


It is not yet fully established whether immunocompetent individuals who have responded to hepatitis A vaccination will require booster doses as protection in the absence of detectable antibodies may be ensured by immunological memory. Guidelines for boosting are based on the assumption that antibodies are required for protection; anti-HAV antibodies have been predicted to persist for at least 10 years.

In situations where a booster dose of both hepatitis A and hepatitis B are desired, Twinrix Adult can be given. Alternatively, subjects primed with Twinrix Adult may be administered a booster dose of either of the monovalent vaccines.
 

尚未完全确定对甲型肝炎疫苗接种有反应的具有免疫能力的人是否需要加强剂量,因为通过免疫记忆可以确保在没有可检测抗体的情况下提供保护。 加强指导原则基于以下假设:保护需要抗体。 预计抗HAV抗体会持续至少10年。
如果需要同时增加甲型和乙型肝炎的剂量,可以服用TWINRIX成人。 备选地,可以向用双毒成人(Twinrix Adult)致敏的受试者给予加强剂量的任一单价疫苗。


Hepatitis B  乙型肝炎疫苗


The need for a booster dose of hepatitis B vaccine in healthy individuals who have received a full primary vaccination course has not been established; however some official vaccination programmes currently include a recommendation for a booster dose of hepatitis B vaccine and these should be respected.
For some categories of subjects or patients exposed to HBV (e.g; haemodialysis or immunocompromised patients) a precautionary attitude should be considered to ensure a protective antibody level ≥ 10IU/l.

 

尚未确定在接受完整初次疫苗接种过程的健康个体中需要增加剂量的乙型肝炎疫苗; 但是,目前一些官方的疫苗接种计划包括增加乙型肝炎疫苗剂量的建议,应予以尊重。
对于某些类别的受试者或暴露于HBV的患者(例如血液透析或免疫功能低下的患者),应考虑采取预防态度,以确保保护性抗体水平≥10IU / l。

 



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